Andrew Raine drew the participants' attention to the worsening climate crisis and the crucial role of judges in climate action. Judges will increasingly be called upon to apply the law to (i) protect the environment and safeguard the climate; (ii) uphold the rights of their citizens to a clean, safe and sustainable environment; and (iii) hold governments accountable to their commitments regarding climate adaptation in particular. He also pointed out the accelerating wave of climate litigation across the world and the plethora of climate-related cases coming before courts. Pacific judges need to be prepared for climate litigation in the region. He cited the UNEP's global environmental rule of law report, which showed that effective environment and climate adjudication happens when judiciaries have fair proceedings, capable judges, efficient procedures, and reasoned decisions. Judges play a key role in being the ultimate implementors of the law. He concluded by thanking the Supreme Court of Fiji and everyone involved in making this conference happen.