Implementation of Waste to Energy as a Sustainable Urban Energy Solution in Sri Lanka
The national perspective of waste to energy (WtE) option as a sustainable urban energy solution in Sri Lanka is explored. Recently, the government has given emphasis for WtE, not only to manage municipal solid waste (MSW) but also to achieve targets in renewable energy and nationally determined contributions. Yet, no significant progress is seen, indicating a variety of challenges related to waste collection, composition, heating value, quantity, transport distance, expertise, finance, land, etc. These challenges are compounded by ever-increasing generation plastic waste and its unsustainable disposal. Situational analysis of the MSW sector highlights that, in relation to most of the governing aspects of technology selection, more information and some specific improvements are required before implementing a project. Apart from system improvements, technology innovations have become a crucial factor to make WtE a sustainable urban energy solution, as demonstrated by a specific case study involving plastic waste as a co-fuel in the cement industry.